By Antonio Zaza, Michael Rosen

Wisdom of the elemental mechanisms of cardiac excitation is a prerequisite to the certainty of cardiac arrythmias and their reaction to treatment. The aim of this ebook is to supply readers unacquainted with the problem with the knowledge essential to advance pathophysiologically orientated scientific reasoning during this quarter. in addition to masking common features of cardiac mobile and tissue electrophysiology, An creation to Cardiac Electrophysiology illustrates lately bought details on digital abnormalities linked to cardiac ailment and on molecular mechanisms of anti-arrhythmic drug motion. The language used is appropriate to handle non-specialists, and the connection with physics has been restricted to very easy ideas. Enclosed with the e-book is an interactive machine version for cardiac motion power, that may be simply run on any IBM appropriate computing device, therefore permitting readers to check the consequences of alterations in person ionic currents at the form and homes of the cardiac act.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Cardiac Electrophysiology

Example text

In the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, the potassium channel was assumed to have four such independent gates. The probability of the channel opening is the product of the open probabilities of each of the independent gates. Thus, if any one of the gates remained in a closed state the channel itself would be closed and only when all gates were open was the channel itself open. Kinetically, this configuration gives rise to a delay in the appearance of the open state. In order to envision the delay in channel opening intuitively, it is often simpler to view the channel as transiting a number of closed states prior to entering the open state.

The channel is in a stable energy minimum when in the C state and must cross the barrier to enter the O state. The height of this barrier from the well bottom to the barrier top determines the rate of the reaction in the forward direction. A rate constant (α in this case with units of sec−1) characterizes this forward transition. The larger the energy barrier (well-to-barrier height) the slower the reaction. If the height of the barrier or the depth of the well depends on membrane potential, then the rate constant will also depend on membrane potential.

When only one gate is present there is no delay. C. Channel gating scheme with two activation gates and one inactivation gate in series. This Molecular Physiology of cardiac ion channels 49 independent gate scheme can produce inactivation. In this case the gates attached to the left hand “subunit” are the activation gates and are identical. The gate attached to the right hand “subunit” is a distinct inactivation gate. Each gate functions independently and all gates must be open for the channel to be open.

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