By Paul Williams

Brings jointly Paul Williams' formerly released papers at the Indian and Tibetan interpretations of chosen verses from the 8th and 9th chapters of the Bodhicaryavatara.

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This understanding of the contrast drawn as one between present and future, rather than present and future lives, contrasts with the use of 'now' ( da Ita) found in the commentaries of Bu stan Rin chen grub ( 1290- 1 3 64 ) and Sa bzang mati paI}chen 'Jam dbyangs blo gros (fourteenth century) , both of whom add 'now' or 'present' (da itar) to their gloss, but clearly imply that the 'now' referred to is the present body, the body of this life, rather than the body at the very present moment. Not surprisingly, these commentators also take the narrower application of 'future sufferings', in contrast to bSod nams rtse mo's wider application.

Tibetan commen­ tators often see it as a reference to prakrtinirva1}a, but their interpretation of prakrtinirva1}a differs so much so that a reference to prakrtinirva1}a could also be a reference to actual nirva1}a. Bu ston's terminological world is not that of Mi pham. 560 ) . Bu ston tends to follow in his commentary his Indian predecessors, and some of the language at this point, standard expressions for nirva1}a, is familiar from Prajiiakaramati. There is no mention of the prakrti­ nirva1}a, and it seems clear to me that Bu ston is, like Prajiiakaramati, thinking here of the actual attainment of nirva1}a.

E. 41 The implication here is that even those who have understood emptiness through reasoning alone, inasmuch as they have under­ stood emptiness, do not think that anything, including emptiness itself, is truly established. Once more rGyal tshab makes a distinction - this time between the stopping of verbal differentiations (prapaiica) of definitive truth which while a noble achievement does not in itself equal nirvaIJa, and the stopping of verbal differentiations of dual 23 Altruism and Reality appearance which, in general and in the last analysis can be said here to equal nirvalJa.

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