By David O. Cooney

Highlighting activated charcoal's nice effectiveness in treating drug overdoses and poisonings in either people and animals, this complete, single-source reference brings jointly very important info from each major examine at the use of activated charcoal for scientific purposes-describing all to be had charcoal items and their features.

Details activated charcoal's skill to minimize the systemic absorption of an enormous array of substances, chemical substances, and biochemical substances-including analgesics, antipyretics, sedatives, alkaloids, snake venoms, and bacterial and fungal pollutants.

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Additional resources for Activated Charcoal in Medical Applications, Second Edition

Sample text

These assumptions are only approximately correct. The BET equation is Q _ HPIP) Qm (l-P/Ps)(l~P/Ps + bP/Ps) where Ps is the saturation vapor pressure at the temperature used in the test (again, one usually uses a temperature such that Ps is 1 atmosphere), Q is the amount of substance adsorbed at any given pressure F, and Qm is the amount of substance adsorbed when one complete monomolecular layer of surface coverage is attained. C). From the last equation, one can see that the intercept on the vertical axis at PIPS = 0 on such a plot is equal to UbQm and the slope of the line is equal to (VbQm)(b- 1).

The effect of adding a simple salt like NaCl to a system in which adsorption of an organic ion to charcoal is occurring is fairly simple: those salt ions which carry a charge opposite to that of the adsorbed organic ions are attracted to the spaces between adjacently adsorbed organic ions, and reduce the strength of repulsion of the adjacently adsorbed organic ions. Thus, a greater packing density of the adsorbed organic ions on the charcoal surface can be achieved. 11 shows data of Sorby et al.

Surface Area Internal surface areas of porous materials such as activated charcoals are generally determined by use of the so-called BET equation, derived by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (1938). This equation describes the formation of multilayers of condensed gas which occurs when an adsorbable gas is contacted with the porous solid. In such a test, one normally uses nitrogen at a temperature corresponding to its atmospheric boiling point (-196°C or 77K). That is, the temperature employed is that at which nitrogen would change from a liquid to a gas if the pressure, P, were equal to exactly 1 atmo­ sphere.

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