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The results of this approach may need to be modified to meet the needs-versus-funds problems that highway administrators face. The goal of cost-effective design is not merely to give priority to the most beneficial individual projects but to provide the most benefits to the highway system of which each project is a part. Most of the technical material that follows is detailed or descriptive design information. Design guidelines are included for freeways, arterials, collectors, and local roads, in both urban and rural locations, paralleling the functional classification used in highway planning.

In practice, direct access to arterials and collectors should be provided from commercial and residential properties, particularly in established neighborhoods. In short, each element of the functional hierarchy can serve as a collecting facility for the next higher element, but an element should be present only where the intermediate collection is needed to satisfy the spacing needs and traffic volume demands of the next higher facility. By defining the spacing needs and traffic volume demands for a system element, it is possible to determine which cases should use the full system and in which cases intermediate elements may be bypassed.

352 Typical Two-lane Tunnel Sections ........................................................................ 358 Diagrammatic Tunnel Sections ............................................................................. 360 Entrance to a Freeway Tunnel............................................................................... 360 Interior of a 3-lane One-way Tunnel...................................................................... 361 Typical Pedestrian Overpasses on Major Highways ...............................................

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