By Woolley Adam

This sensible, straight forward, and informative textual content surveys simple rules of toxicology. it really is a useful consultant to comparing toxicity and similar facts, impending toxicity checking out and interpretation, and knowing the suggestions of threat prediction and hazard review and administration.

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Additional info for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk

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The effects of endogenous chemicals are, in some cases, mimicked by those of xenobiotics. Compounds such as opium and morphine have well-known addictive properties and share some properties with neuropeptides that are present naturally in mammals. Opium is a mixture of alkaloids that includes morphine, of which codeine is a methyl derivative; as with digitalis, use of opium, which was known to the ancient Greeks, gave way to the use of the individual compounds. The complex range of actions of opioids is explained by the presence of several receptor types, for which endogenous peptides have been discovered.

Protein binding can also be affected in kidney disease, where reduced filtration rates lead to slower elimination and vital blood flows can be affected by other factors such as cardiac disease. It should also be remembered that exposure to some chemicals may increase susceptibility to infection, as with polychlorobiphenyls , which are immune suppressants. Pregnancy Pregnancy is associated with an increase in plasma volume and consequent borderline anaemia and with changes in protein binding. The extracellular space is increased with an associated increase in the amount of fluid available for dissolution of drugs (increased volume of distribution).

Much is made of the minimal study design, which results from use of the three Rs; this approach is fraught with risk as, like a net with a wider mesh, more errors can creep through. Much better would be an optimized study design. In all the current enthusiasm for the three Rs, the purpose and objectives of toxicological investigation should not be forgotten. Mostly, these tests are undertaken to elucidate potential safety of the use of chemicals by humans. While the use of animals should be questioned, controlled, and reduced, it should be remembered that use of too few animals in an ill-conceived experiment is as morally questionable as the use of a study design that will achieve the objectives of the study or experimental program.

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