By James W. Cortada

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Additional resources for A City in war: American views on Barcelona and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39

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Paris, 1963). Page xvi then Luis Companys upon the former's death in 1933. It also had a cabinet and a legislative body. These institutions were in Barcelona, where they tackled municipal and regional problems with the aim of improving education, road and rail communications, and telegraph and telephone service. They established new agencies and commercial codes and encouraged new building construction, expansion of local cultural events, and economic life. This active political environment also provided a number of members to the Second Republic's government.

They established new agencies and commercial codes and encouraged new building construction, expansion of local cultural events, and economic life. This active political environment also provided a number of members to the Second Republic's government. The political mood of both the local government and the principal leaders of Barcelona was liberal, republican, and regionalist. 9 Other problems and frictions existed at the national level that would ultimately affect Barcelona. The Republic launched a major agricultural reform program designed to break up large landed estates (although in Catalonia small farms dominated) in order to distribute land ownership among a large, landless agricultural work force.

Early on the afternoon of 19 July, workers stormed the Hotel Colon and Hotel Ritz, an action soon followed by their seizure of the large Telefónica building in the Plaza de Cataluña. The tide turned in favor of the Republic by late afternoon, and on the following day the soldiers supporting the rebellion surrendered. Others at Fort Montjuich executed many of their officers and joined the side of the Republic. The final episode was the surrender of the Ataranzanas barracks to the workers. Through either surrendering or joining the loyalists, some five thousand soldiers were denied to the rebellion.

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